2017-06-02 01:27

施密特(1999)认为,学校发展指导意见和咨询在美国的职业指导运动的根源,在1898时,底特律学校的校长,Jesse Davis开始,介绍了指导课程,提供在每一堂英语课在他的学校帮助学生发展个性,避免问题行为,并与职业兴趣对职业和社会问题的解决。吉斯伯斯(2001)认为,在上世纪二三十年代,指导职业教育指导的概念演化。教育指导被视为一系列的活动,不仅解决职业问题也是个人和教育方面。然而,尽管学校辅导仍然是重点中学,辅导员开始出现在上世纪30年代在波士顿的一些小学。然而,直到需要被普遍认可资金被用于小学辅导员培训60(施密特,1999)。然而,Baker(2001)认为,尽管20世纪60年代的进步运动,学校辅导在上世纪70年代没有好结果。在上世纪70年代和80年代,许多学校辅导消除位置和更少的工作可为新培训学校辅导员因学校削减预算和财务问题在美国。与此同时,人们对学校辅导和辅导服务所提供的服务表示关注(Baker,1996;施密特,)。另一方面,先生(2001)说,试图界定学校的综合发展模式的作用和功能更适合学生的发展需求。1997,美国学校辅导员协会(ASCA)(1999)采用学校辅导课程国家标准。根据这些标准,学校辅导员要满足学生全面发展的学校心理辅导的实施方案。
伊利诺Essay代写: 施密特
Schmidt (1999) suggests that the development of school guidance and counselling in the United States has its roots in the vocational guidance movement, which started in 1898 when a Detroit school principal, Jesse Davis, introduced a guidance curriculum that was delivered in each English class in his school to help students develop character, avoid problem behaviour, and relate vocational interests to the solution of their vocational and social problems. Gysbers (2001) argues that in the 1920s and 1930s, the concept of guidance evolved from vocational to educational guidance. Educational guidance was viewed as a set of activities that would address not only occupational concerns but also the personal and educational aspects of individuals.However, although school counselling remained focused on secondary schools, counsellors were beginning to appear in some elementary schools in Boston in the 1930s. Yet, it was not until the 1960s that the need was generally recognized and funds were provided for the training of counsellors in elementary schools (Schmidt, 1999). However, Baker (2001) suggests that despite the progressive movement of the 1960s, school counselling did not fare well in the 1970s. During the 1970s and into the 1980s, a number of school counselling positions were eliminated and fewer jobs were available for newly trained school counsellors due to school budget cuts and financial problems across the US. At the same time, concern was being expressed about the programmes of guidance and counselling and the services offered by counsellors in school (Baker, 1996; Schmidt, 1999). On the other hand, Herr (2001) says that attempts to define the role and functions of the school's comprehensive developmental models were better suited to meeting the development needs of students. In 1997, the American School Counsellor Association (ASCA) (1999) adopted the National Standards for School Counselling Programmes. According to these standards, school counsellors are required to address the needs ofstudents comprehensively through the implementation of a developmental school-counselling programme.