英国利物浦作业代写 分析数据

2020-06-08 02:34

在这篇文章中,哈特曼指出,凯瑟琳•沃克和玛格丽特•伍兹在1967年和1968年收集的数据是“关于美国人花在家务上的时间的最全面的分析数据”。这项研究表明了明确的基于性别的劳动分工。这项分析发现,数据集中的859名失业、无子女的已婚女性中,有一位每周在家工作的时间平均为57小时。如果家里有孩子,这个数字会大幅增加。与57个小时的家务活相比,她们的丈夫平均只在家里工作11个小时。这导致了家庭主妇的断言,“家庭生产显然是超过一份全职工作”的结论,从这个数据调查支持后来其他时间计时的研究,如1971年的300对夫妇的研究在大温哥华的1976年的研究3500对夫妇在美国。在世界上许多社区和文化中,家庭中男女的作用已经明确划分。丈夫要成为养家糊口的人,他们要外出工作,为家庭提供经济来源。父亲也经常被认为是纪律严明者,在做决定时拥有最终决定权。当妻子要做家庭主妇时,她们要做诸如煮饭和清洁之类的事情。母亲在教育孩子的同时还要养育和照顾他们,她们通常被认为更感性。虽然在许多发达国家,这种关于男性和女性在传统核心家庭/家庭中所扮演角色的观点已经软化/减弱,但在一些社区、文化和信仰体系中,例如摩门教,这种观点仍然存在。有一段流传至今的经文是:“没有一种职业比妻子、家庭主妇、母亲——做饭、洗碗、为心爱的丈夫和孩子铺床——更重要”(Franklin, 2014)。诸如此类的文本在理解上没有留下多少模棱两可的地方,并清楚地暗示女性的角色是在家中的,因此创造并延续了两性之间的不平等。
英国利物浦作业代写 分析数据
         In this article Hartmann states that the data collected by Kathryn Walker and Margaret Woods in 1967 and 1968 was the most “comprehensively analysed data on time spent doing housework in the United States”. This study demonstrated a clear gender-based division of labour. This analysis found that the average amount of time that one of the 859 unemployed childless married women in this data set would spend working within the home was fifty-seven hours per week. This amount vastly increased if there were children in the home. In contrast to these fifty-seven hours of housework, the women reported that their husbands only worked for an average of eleven hours within the home. This led to the assertion that for homemakers, “Household production is clearly more than a full-time job”The conclusions that were drawn from this data survey were backed up by later other time-budget studies, such as the 1971 study of 300 couples in Greater Vancouver and the 1976 study of 3500 couples in the United States.  In many communities and cultures world-wide the division in the roles of men and women within the family is clearly made. The husbands are to be the ‘breadwinners’, they are to work outside the home to provide financially for the family. Fathers are also often assumed to take on the role of disciplinarian and to have the final say in decision making. While wives are to be homemakers, they are to do tasks such as cook and clean. Mothers are to nurture and care for their children as well as to teach them, they are often thought to be more emotional. While in many developed countries this view regarding the roles of men and women in traditional nuclear families/homes has softened/lessened, it is still present in some communities, cultures and belief systems, such as in Mormonism. There is a popular text that is still used by Mormons today which states that: “No career approaches in importance that of wife, homemaker, mother – cooking meals, washing dishes, making beds for one’s precious husband and children” (Franklin, 2014). Texts such as this leave little room for ambiguity in their understanding and clearly imply that a woman’s role is within the home thereby creating and perpetuation the inequality between the sexes.
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